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Public Repository to Engage Community and Enhance Design Equity

Population Under 5 Years Old


An estimate of the percentage of the population in a predetermined region that is aged under 5 years old, including infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. PRECEDE allows us to view the percentage of the population under 5 years old at various levels of granularity, including within a census tract, within a county, or state-wide.

Context/Impact on Health

According to the US Census Bureau’s 2020 report, the US child population is decreasing and becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Obtaining information on the child population in the US provides valuable insights into future demographic indicators in the country, as well as potential implications to the labor and education sector. For instance, changes in child population growth can help inform policies to invest more in early education initiatives. Early childhood is a very critical period in growth and development, and exposures at this age can have long-term impacts. At this age, it is important to have proper access to health care services and developmental screenings, promote positive health behaviors, and create safe and stable environments and relationships.

Data Collection Methodology

The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey that collects information on the demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics of the US population. The ACS is an ongoing survey sent to 3.5 million addresses each year. The ACS provides estimates for the percentage of the population younger than five years old in the country at the state, county, and census tract level.


Click here for References
  1. Under 5 Years Old Data Source: US Census Bureau. ACS: Under 5 Years Old Population. Data year 2019. Accessed April 2023.
  2. Center on the Developing Child. The foundations of lifelong health are built in early childhood. Harvard University. Published July 2010.
  3. Currie J. Health disparities and gaps in school readiness. Future Child. 2005;15(1):117-138. doi:10.1353/foc.2005.0002
  4. Evans GW, Kim P. Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, Self-Regulation, and Coping. Child Development Perspectives. 2013;7(1):43-48. doi:10.1111/cdep.12013
  5. O’Hare W, Mayol-Garcia Y.H. The Changing Child Population of the United States. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Published April 3, 2023. Accessed October 17, 2023.
  6. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (OASH). Healthy People 2030: Social Determinants of Health Literature Summaries: Early Childhood Development and Education. US Department of Health and Human (USHHS). Accessed October 12, 2023.